Monday, September 11, 2017

"a very nice Indian shot pouch with him . . . . don't know where he got it."


 Shot pouches are one of the most basic items for anybodies gear, and yet done so wrong so often.  There are very few surviving examples to base one on is a big part of the problem, and lots of misdated ones to go wrong on.  My hope with this write up is, by showing the two bags I use, along with a smattering of period images and a few period accounts, help dispel some shot pouch myths.


"My powder horn and ball pouch always contained more or less ammunition, I found them empty.  My knife also, which I commonly carried appended to the strap of my shot pouch, was gone."  
- A Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner

"We sold the Indean plunder in the fort on Monday at Vandue and it fetched fifty shillings for each man. . . . . . . I bought some of this plunder, some nise wamp um and a shot bag and powder horn ect."
-Daniel Trabue interview in the Draper manuscripts




The first bag i use is one that I've shown before and is just a simple brain tan pouch with knife attached.  It is my take on a plain jane simple Indian made shot pouch.  Not really a lot to say about it other than it works.  And I've taken a few spills, but have yet to have the bag spill anything even with out a button.


"He went up that time, clear up as far as the mouth of the Kanawha. . . . . . Brought back a very nice Indian shot pouch with him, all beaded off; don't know where he got it."
-William Clinkenbeard interview in the Shane portion of the Draper manuscripts





The second pouch I use is one inspired by an original finger woven bag and was made by Alec Fourman.  No inside pockets on this one either, but still an excellent working pouch.  A few thoughts here on finger woven bags - there is a lot of bad out there as far as attempts at repro's go.  Think small yarn, oblique woven, with the beads woven in also - sometimes on a carrier strand of linen thread.  Most originals are lined.  They are constructed in one of two ways, either woven in the round or woven as a panel and then folded and sewn up the sides.  Some originals have quill work on the bags, straps, and/ or fringe and many have tin cones with deer hair.  (thanks Fourman for stopping hay work for a minute to get your brain picked!)  DO NOT, I repeat, DO NOT use a piece of wool fabric with beads sewn on and think it in any way resembles a finger woven bag.

Other thoughts on what to avoid when it comes to common shooting pouches on the 1770's frontier - Incorrect leather, i.e. chrome tan.  Rings on the strap.  Modern buckles.  Giant yarn straps.  Inkle loom straps.  Complex construction technique.  Asymmetrical flaps.  There's a few original leather ones from the period and a couple cloth ones.  This is a whole other subject than the purpose of this blog post, but there are certainly other options, and some probably better for wide spread representation than the two I use.  At the end of the day, if using the pouch for living history, base it off an original.

And last but not least, a shot pouch is not a carry all purse.  It's sole purpose is to carry stuff to make the gun go boom.  Bullets, flints, turnscrew and vent pick.  But there's always a guy who just have to have something odd in his bag, so here's a few quotes to help that guy out . . . .


"Wymore had a pocket compass in his shot bag."  
"My father bought the first pig to Lexington, gave $5 for it and a a chew of tobacco.  He put it in his shot bag and brought it home."
- Wymore interview in the Shane portion of the Draper manuscripts

"At the time he had an Indian scalp in his shot pouch."
- Peter Cutright interview in the Shane portion of the Draper manuscripts

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

Frontiersmen Weren't Special Forces Ninja Warriors : PART 1


A Heroic and Romantic 19th Century Depiction of Daniel Boone fighting an Indian

 It's very easy for us to view the frontiersmen of the past as rugged individuals, out for days alone in the wilderness like some kind of specials forces ninja able to smell an Indian from a mile away and being completely self sufficiant, cut off from the rest of society in some quest for solitude.

 This idea was perpetuated by wild stories of Daniel Boone and Davy Crocket in the 19th century and became a popular part of our American identity.

 But how true is this rugged individualism?

 Daniel Boone said later in his life :


Many heroic actions and chivalrous adventures are related of me which exist only in the regions of fancy. With me the world has taken great liberties, and yet I have been but a common man.

— Daniel Boone

 Let's look at just a few things commonly thought about Frontiersman and see if we can't dispel some of the myths. I will be using the Cressweel Diary as my main source for this particular write up.

 #1 . Frontiersmen  were Skilled Expert Woodsmen

 While in many cases this could be true, was it normative? Let's look at some examples of Longhunters being somewhat inept and some of the things they didn't prepare for.

 Wednesday, May 24th, 1775. Land in general covered with Beech. Limestone in large flags. Few rivulets empty into the River, or few springs to be seen, which makes me suppose the country is badly watered. Camped at a place where the Buffaloes cross the River. In the night were alarmed with a plunging in the River. In a little time Mr. Johnston (who slept on board) called out for help. We ran to his assistance with our arms and to our great mortification and surprise found one of our Canoes that had all our flour on board sunk, and would have been inevitably lost, had it not been fixed to the other. We immediately hauled our shattered vessel to the shore and landed our things, tho' greatly damaged. It was done by the Buffaloes crossing the River from that side where the vessel was moored. Fortunately for Mr. Johnston he slept in that Canoe next the shore. The Buffaloes jumped over him into the other, and split it about fourteen foot. Mr. Nourse and Mr. Taylor's servants usually slept on board, but had by mistake brought their blankets on shore this evening and were too lazy to go on board again or probably they would have been killed. 


 Sunday, May 28th, 1775. Proceeded up the River. Saw a great many Buffaloes cross the River above us, all hands went ashore to surround them. I kept on the outside of them and shot a fine young Heifer,  some of the rest shot a Cow and Calf. Our stupid company will not stay to jerk any, tho' we are in want of provisions. Camped on a gravelly Island. Beech bottoms and cedar hills with few rivulets.



Saturday, June 24th, 1775. This morning set out to the Lick without breakfast. The reason was we had nothing to eat. Three of us stayed at the Lick till the afternoon waiting for the Buffaloes but saw none. When our out Hunters came loaded with meat and informed us they had killed a Buffalo about five miles off, set out and found it, and loaded ourselves and returned to the Camp, but never so much fatigued before. Having already experienced the want of victuals, was willing to guard against it for the future. I believe I have exerted myself more than I can bear. It is judged by the company that I brought between 70 and 80 pound of meat, exclusive of my Gun and Shot pouch. To add to my distress my shoesoles came off and I was obliged to walk bare foot for six miles. Find myself very unwell. Shot a Pole Cat. One of our Company missing.All the rest (except Tilling and myself) are going this evening, as they expect he is killed by the Indians. But I think he has lost himself in the Woods. Very arduous task to persuade them to stay, as they all expect to be killed before morning. 


Sunday, June 25th, 1775.  Slept little last night, over-fatigued. This morning our company are for setting out immediately, confident that the man is killed. With much importunity prevailed on them to stay till evening but could not persuade any of them to goto seek the man. About sundown they all prepared for going, notwithstanding all that Mr. Tilling and I could say against it, but just as we were going aboard saw the man come along shore to our great joy. It had happened as I supposed--he lost himself in the Woods and had rambled all night. If we had left him, he must have perished. Very unwell.

Out of twelve Guns five were rendered unfit for present use by the wet, mine happened to be in goodorder and I loaded her with an ounce bullet and seven swan shot. The command of our Canoes was given to me. We had only two Guns on board fit for use, Mr. Tilling's and 
mine. Tom O'Brien in the scuffle let his fall in the River and got her filled with water.
















Wednesday, August 16, 2017

...small round hat...



Shawnee Warrior takes a young prisoner
"My Dress consisted of a calico shirt, made by an Indian woman without a collar, which reached below the waist; a blanket over my shoulders, tied round the waist with the bark of a tree; a pair of good buckskin leggings, which covered almost the thighs, given me by the great war chief, a pair of moccasins, in which I had pieces of blue cloth to make my step easier; a breech-cloth between my legs; a girdle round my waist; and a small round hat, in which the Indian placed a black ostrich feather by way of ornament (the smaller the hat the more fashionable)." 
-An Account of my Capture by the Shawnee Indians on the River Ohio in 1788 
by Thomas Rideout


Some recent comments on facebook have led me to post some images and descriptions of small brimmed hats in the period. Please take a look at the following.

1775 Map Image

Phineas Meigs Hat, 1760s

 The following images are in the context of sailors, but it shows some good small brimmed hats. All of these from the 1770s.







  A good mix of hats on the backcountry is good, and among them should be included a short brimmed round hat. 

All kinds of hats 


Monday, August 7, 2017

"to ape the manner of savages . . ." or if James Bond was 18th century frontier what he might of looked like




"Declarant states that he was then stationed at Fort Pitt, the place aforesaid.  Declarant states that in obedience to the order of his said Captain Brady, he poceeded to tan his thighs and legs with wild cherry and white oak bark and to equip himself after the following manner, to wit, a breechcloth, leather leggins, moccasins and a cap made out of a racoon skin, with the feathers of a hawk, painted after the manner of an Indian warrior.  His face was painted red, with three black stripes across his cheeks, which was a signification of war.  Declarant states that Captain Brady's company was about sixty four in number, all painted after the manner aforesaid."  George Roush pension papers.  Early 19th century, describing 1777 campaign


"As we enlisted our men, we dressed them uniformly in the Indian manner, with breech-clouts, leggins, mockesons and green shrouds, which we wore in the same manner that the Indians do, and nearly as the Highlanders wear their plaids.  In place of hats we wore red handerchiefs, and painted our faces red and black, like Indian warriors.  I taught them the Indian discipline, . . . "  James Smith,  LIfe and Travels of Colonel James Smith.   1799 describing the "black boys" of the 1760's


"It was the silly fashion of those times for the riflemen to ape the manner of savages . ."  John Henry, An Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships and Suffering of that Band of Heroes, Who Traversed Thru The Wilderness in the Campaign Against Quebec in 1775.  1812


" April 10th. 1758 SIR Yesterday in the afternoon as Mr. Miller & 2 or 3 Countrymen more was riding from here to Jenkins's about 4 miles from this, they were fired at by Cocks & Lane who was lying under the fence, the Countrymen came in on a full gallop and inform'd me that they were fired on by some Indians. I immediately sent out Lieut. Weedon with a Command of Men who followed their Tracts till dark, returning home I sent Ensign Chew out again this morning to Reconnoiter on the other side the Mountain where he fell on their Tracts, and after pursuing them about 10 Miles he found a Beef that they had killed and cut out the Toungue and part of the hind quarters, he continued following them about a Mile farther and discovered a smoke in the hollow of a Mountain, Coming nigh perceived them Bacueing their Meet, they being acquipt every way like Indians and as he had followed their Tracts from pretty near the place where Lt. Weedon left them last night had great reason to believe they were Enemy/and immediately fired on them. Lane was killed Dead and Cocks mortally wounded, they brought to Bells Fort where he left him with a Sergt. & [manuscript torn] Men, he confessed it was their own fault & blame know one else but themselves for the Accident.1 I am Sir Your mo obt. Servt. J. BAKER"



“Lane and Cox appeared to have been disguised as Indians, and it was under the impression they were such that Lieutenant Chew shot them.”—Washington to President Blair, April 17, 1758



"400 Virginian Volunteers, all armed with rifles, and excellent marksmen, dressed alamode de sauvages, with painted shirts and fur caps stained with paint" Scots Magazine, Oct of 1764


"…8 blankets, 7 yards of stroud for making britch cloth and leggings, and 4 shirts for the volunteers of Kentucky" Clark Papers, 1992-2-656-658-July 1, 1779

"Capt. Hugh McGarry request to conductor of store for 20 blankets, 20 shirts, and 9 yards of blue stroud for 20 men of his company of Kentucky volunteers." Clark Papers, 1866-2-573-574-July 5, 1779.

"Honble. Sir: An unlucky, but unavoidable accident happened in the neighborhood of Patterson's fort the other day. The proceedings of an examining court of officers on that occasion (which are herewith sent) will bring your Honor acquainted with the circumstances. I caused a very strict enquiry to be made into the conduct of Mr. Chew, that equal justice might be done to the dead and to the living; and it appeared that Mr. Chew had acted with great spirit and activity in pursuing the tracks of those people; and that in shooting them (altho' it was unlucky in the event) he had done nothing that was not strictly warrantable, Lane and Cox appearing both in dress, disguise and behavior, to be no other than Indians."  JOHN BLAIR Fort Loudoun, April 17, 1758.

"I have had the happiness of seeing Captain Michael Cresap marching at the head of a formidable company of upward of one hundred and thirty men from the mountains and backwoods, painted like Indians, armed with tomahawks and rifles, dressed in hunting-shirts and moccasins; and though some of them had traveled near eight  hundred miles from the banks of the Ohio, they seemed to walk light and easy, and not with less spirit than at the first hour of their march."  Anonymous letter to Philadelphia, 1775



"Joseph Neal a soldier in Col' Rawling's Regiment was brought before the Court on suspicion of Deserting. Denies the Charge. No proof appearing against him & the suspicion arising only from Cutting one of his Ears & painting like the savages."  General court-martial, Col. Stephen Bayard, President Washington Papers.



"Pryor and Hammond were dressed in the Indian style . . . . . . . They passed the Indians without being recognized"  Extract from Hugh Taylor's "Notes".  Frontier Advance on the Upper Ohio, 1778-1779



I'm just going to let the quotes speak alone on this post.  Basically white dudes aping Indians.  Whole companies of them, a pair of buddies, spies . . . As cool of an impression as can be had . . .

And a huge, huge THANK YOU to Fred Lucas.  The man is bottom less pit of awesome resources and research.  99% of this stuff came from him.  Thanks a ton!


Fred Lucas, "the Frontier Yoda"



Monday, July 31, 2017

"Much tormented with Ticks" . . and Occam's Razor




"Friday, May 26th, 1775. Proceeded up the River. Met 2 Canoes bound to Redstone. Shot an old Buffalo Bull that had his ears marked. Passed a bad rapid which took all our force to tow our Vessel up. Much tormented with Ticks, a small animal like a Sheeplouse, but very tough skin. They get on you by walking in the Woods in great numbers, and if you don't take care to pick them off in time they work their heads through the skin and then you may pull the body away but the head will remain in the skin, which is very disagreeable. If they are not removed in a short time they grow like the Ticks on a Dog. Beechy bottoms. Camped at the mouth of Elk Horn Creek. Our company still continues to be crabbed with one another and I believe will be worse as Bread grows scarce."  N. Cresswell journal


 When this post was first conceived, I thought I'd do it mostly to the effect of how a day spent in the woods went.  Something to the effect of guys that are really interested in research and documentation (call them progressives if you like) can also go out and do stuff, and aren't afraid to get dirty and destroy their gear.  Something to convince the masses that research + woods time = sublime.   So I went to the woods today, packed my gun and wallet with bare essentials and hoped for something awesome to happen to write about.  Nothing awesome commenced.  Haha, that's the way it goes when a feller needs an adventure I suppose.  I missed two squirrels, both about 35 to 40 yards.  I walked and walked, sometimes through some pretty rough and brushy, rocky ground.  I sipped some rum and I took a nap.  Admired some wild flowers, watched some birds.  Sweated my butt off, made a little fire, melted some lead and poured some ball.  I cut an X in a tree and shot at it.  My camera battery died and I didn't get to take nearly as many pictures as I wanted to.  Managed to appropriate 47 ticks, 16 of them on my nether regions.  (I counted as I plucked merely for purposes of this write up . . . . )


 But as I sit and ponder on a pretty uneventful day (granted a ton of fun) it strikes me that all too often in the living history world we want some crazy epic time in the woods - with weather as spiteful as Satan, awesome shots on game, a bunch of cool pictures to show everybody what we did, maybe some huge revelation on a better way to use our gear.  I've decided to take a different tone with this post, something simpler.  Something more in tune with the principle of Occam's Razor.


 Period journals are rife with pretty boring days.   Mundane days.  If we as living historians wish to accurately portray these men of long ago, we need to embrace the mundane.  It's essential.  There is dirt to be found in a boring day, and boring day dirt on gear and clothes adds credibility.  The sweat adds honest dark lines along a shirt collar.  Fresh dings against the butt of a rifle convey a sense of a guy who does more than mowed lawn events.  So my plea is this - Get out, do something.  Yes, it's summer and there is ticks and skeeters.  But the truthful sense it adds to gear is second to none.  That's all it takes, get out and do it.

-Matthew Fennewald-

Saturday, July 29, 2017

Voices from the Backcountry : Nicholas Cresswell, 1775



Tuesday, June 27th, 1775. Very stiff current all day, heavy showers and very sultry. It is a custom with 
our company, as soon as it begins to rain to strip naked and secure their clothes from the wet. I have 
attempted it twice to-day, but the drops of rain are so disagreeable to my skin, that it obliged me to put 
on my shirt. Killed a Faun. Saw a Bear cross the River, but could not get a shot at her. All hands very 
weary and very crabbed. 

-Nicholas Cresswell

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Breech-clouts and Leggins...or...Let's Get the Basics Right!


 "On their legs they have Indian boots, or leggings, made of coarse woolen cloth, that either are wrapped around loosely and tied with garters, or are laced upon the outside, and always come better than half way up the thigh . ."  -J. Smyth,  Tour in the United States of America


"we dressed them uniformly in the Indian manner, with breech-clouts, leggins mockersons and green shrouds . . "  -J. Smith, Life and Travels of Colonel James Smith



"The rest wear breechclouts, leggins and hunting shirts . ."  -Journal of Nicholas Cressell


"instead of stockings they wear Indian leggings . ."  -Travels of Johann David Schoepf


"Deerskin leggings were fastened at the top to a body belt on which the scabbard would also be attached.  The leggings were then tied around below the knee."  -Nathan Boone interview in the Draper manuscripts


"It was the silly fashion of those times for the riflemen to ape the manner of savages . ."
"By-and-by Morgan came, large, a commanding aspect, and stentorian voice.  He wore leggins, and a cloth in the Indian style."  -J. Henry, An Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships and Sufferings of That Band of Heroes, Who Traversed Thru The Wilderness in the Campaign Against Quebec in 1775



All of the above quotes are in the context of white dudes in the back country wearing leggings, and several include a breech clout as well.  And this is just the tip of the iceberg.  There are TONS of quotes describing this, but my favorite thing isn't to sit in front of a computer and type, so I will hope those quotes will be sufficient for the purposes of this post.
The question that naturally follows is, what exactly are "Indian leggings"?  And what does a correct breech clout look like?


"They go without any covering for the thigh, except that before spoken of, round the middle, which reaches down half way the thighs; but they make for their legs a sort of stocking either of skins or cloth; these are sewed as near to the shape of the leg as possible, so as to admit of being drawn on and off.  The edges of the stuff of which they are composed are left annexed to the seam, and hang loose for about the breadth of a hand: and this part which is placed on the outside of the leg, is generally ornamented by those who have any communication with Europeans, if of cloth, with ribbons or lace, if of leather with embroidery and porcupine quills curiously colored."  -J. Carver, Travels through the Interior Parts of North America in the Years 1766, 1767, and 1768


"Above the moccasin all the Indians wear what are called leggings, which reach from the instep to the middle of the thigh.  They are commonly made of blue or scarlet cloth, and are formed so as to sit close to the limbs, like the modern pantaloons; but the edges of the cloth annexed to the seam, instead of being turned in, are left on the outside, and are ornamented with beads, ribands, &C., when the leggings are intended for dress.  Many of the young warriors are so desirous that their leggings should fit them neatly, that they make the squaws, who are the tailors, and really very good ones, sow them tight on their limbs, so that they cannot be taken off, and they continue to wear them constantly till they are reduced to rags.  The leggings are kept up by means of two strings, one on the outside of each thigh, which are fastened to a third, that is tied around the waist.  They also wear round the waist another string, from which are suspended two little aprons, somewhat more than a foot square, one hanging down before and the other behind, and under these a piece of cloth, drawn close up to the body between the legs, forming a sort of truss. The aprons and this piece of cloth, which are all fastened together, are called the breech cloth."  -I. Weld, Travels through the States of North America


I'll start with the breech clout.  A strip of wool stroud (a decent quality broadcloth is a great choice for the modern living historian), historically about 8 to 12 inches wide and somewhere around 50 ish inches long.  Adair says they are " a quarter of an ell wide, with an ell and a half long . ." which comes out to 11" by 68".  This is much longer than other descriptions and period images of them, as well as all original examples I am aware of.  In period imagery they seem to end around mid thigh on front and back both.  Some shorter than that, very few longer.  Blue predominates the color choice.  Red comes in second.  But basically strip of WOOL that goes tucked between the legs, up over a waist tie of some sort, then hangs over like an apron in front and back.

 A quick word about "hourglassed" breech clouts - don't do it!  For what ever reason it's become popular in the living history world to cut the middle part of breech clouts into an hour glass shape, tapering in a semi circle shape on either edge.  I suppose the idea is to do away with extra material and make them more comfortable.  This extra material gets tucked up around your junk though, and keeps everybody from seeing more than they want to.  So don't do it!  Not cause it's farb (it is) but because I don't want to see that much of any other dude.  Also, stick with wool.  Broadcloth.  Stroud with a list if you can afford it or have the fortitude to make it yourself.  Stay away from linen.  Good wool.  (I've rocked my wool clout more than once in 100 degrees plus and high humidity for days on end and found it rather pleasant.  You can too!)


Leggings.  Another piece of clothing, much like a breech clout in that it is incredibly simple - but so much wrong in the world of living history.  Imagine a rectangle of wool, once again broadcloth or stroud, or BRAINTAN (german tan doesn't cut it, it looks like german tan, not Indian dressed skin) that will be folded in half hot dog bun style, and the leg of the wearer slipped down it it.  It goes from the ankle to anywhere from just above the knee to mid thigh.  It is sewn with a running stitch down the outside of the leg.  Sewn with a running stitch TIGHTLY to the leg.  Baggy leggings scream 1990's bad reenacting.  So sew them tightly.  A good way to do this is sit on the floor, legs stretched out in front, put the wool around your leg and either staple them down or make a chalk line.  Then go back and follow the staples sewing and pulling staples as you go, or follow the chalk line.  I leave about a 6 inch section at the ankle not sewn so as to be able to slip them on and off.  If sewn tight all the way down, they can be all but impossible to put on and take off.  Hooks and eyes down there is a way to close them (and historically correct!) as is wrapping with wool tape or a braintan wang.  I wear my moccs flaps up so that takes care of the opening for me.   The leggings should retain a flap around 4 ish inches that run down the outside of the leg.  They should also be worn with garters.  (Garters are a whole other subject, but stick with wool tape, brain tan wang, or correctly done finger woven ones.  Thick wool yarn is a huge red flag so don't do it when it comes to garters.  I'm unaware of a single pair of quilled garters that are original to the 18th century)  Garters should be tied above the calf, below the knee.  Not above the knee on the thigh.  (Why do I even need to say this?  Because I've seen the facebook pictures . . )  Leggings also have a strip or strap (or two in a y shape) that goes up from the top, along the outside of the thigh and ties to a belt or waist thong to help hold them up.  Wool colors are once again - blue.  red.  green.  white.  And a few other weird ones but not as common as those.

Last but not least, a smattering of period images of Indian leggings and breech clouts, a long with a few original examples.




































-Matthew Fennewald-